vi Editor in PKIT

Das PKIT nutzt den vim Editor. Die Bedienung und Funktionen sind in unzähligen Quellen im Internet zu finden. Trotzdem beschreibe ich hier die wichtigsten Funktionen und gebe Ihnen Praxistips an die Hand. Dies sollte zur Bedienung des PKIT ausreichen.

  • Dokument speichern und schliessen

[ESC] à : x

Alle Zeichen (Umbruch, Leerzeichen, Tabstopps) anzeigen

[ESC] à :set list

Abschalten der Funktion mit [ESC] à :set nolist

Zeile(n) löschen

[ESC] à 22 dd     # löscht 22 Zeilen ab Cursor

[ESC] à dd # löscht die aktuelle Zeile unter dem Cursor

Änderungen rückgängig machen

[ESC] u

Syntax Highlighting ab / abschalten

[ESC] :sy on

[ESC] :sy off

Dokument im UNIX-Mode speichern

[ESC] :set ff=unix

[ESX] : x

Global

  :help keyword # open help for keyword 
: o file # open file
:saveas file # save file as
:close # close current pane

Cursor Movement

 h        # move cursor left
j # move cursor down
k # move cursor up
l # move cursor right
H # move to top of screen
M # move to middle of screen
L # move to bottom of screen
w # jump forwards to the start of a word
W # jump forwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)
e # jump forwards to the end of a word
E # jump forwards to the end of a word (words can contain punctuation)
b # jump backwards to the start of a word
B # jump backwards to the start of a word (words can contain punctuation)
0 # jump to the start of the line
^ # jump to the first non-blank character of the line
$ # jump to the end of the line
g_ # jump to the last non-blank character of the line
gg # go to the first line of the document
G # go to the last line of the document
5G # go to line 5
fx # jump to next occurrence of character x
tx # jump to before next occurrence of character x
} # jump to next paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)
{ # jump to previous paragraph (or function/block, when editing code)
zz # center cursor on screen
Ctrl + b # move back one full screen
Ctrl + f # move forward one full screen
Ctrl + d # move forward 1/2 a screen
Ctrl + u # move back 1/2 a screen

Insert Mode – Inserting/Appending

 i        # insert before the cursor
I # insert at the beginning of the line
a # insert (append) after the cursor
A # insert (append) at the end of the line
o # append (open) a new line below the current line

Editing

 r        # replace a single character
J # join line below to the current one
cc # change (replace) entire line
cw # change (replace) to the start of the next word
ce # change (replace) to the end of the next word
cb # change (replace) to the start of the previous word
c0 # change (replace) to the start of the line
c$ # change (replace) to the end of the line
s # delete character and substitute text
S # delete line and substitute text (same as cc)
xp # transpose two letters (delete and paste)
repeat last command
u # undo
Ctrl + r # redo

Marking Text (visual mode)

v        # start visual mode, mark lines, then do a command (like y-yank)
V # start linewise visual mode
o # move to other end of marked area
O # move to other corner of block
aw # mark a word
ab # a block with ()
aB # a block with {}
ib # inner block with ()
iB # inner block with {}
Esc # exit visual mode
Ctrl + v # start visual block mode

Visual Commands

   # shift text right
< # shift text left
y # yank (copy) marked text
d # delete marked text
~ # switch case

Cut and Paste

 yy       # yank (copy) a line
2yy # yank (copy) 2 lines
yw # yank (copy) the characters of the word from the cursor position to the start of the next word
y$ # yank (copy) to end of line
p # put (paste) the clipboard after cursor
P # put (paste) before cursor
dd # delete (cut) a line
2dd # delete (cut) 2 lines
dw # delete (cut) the characters of the word from the cursor position to the start of the next word
D # delete (cut) to the end of the line
d$ # delete (cut) to the end of the line
d^ # delete (cut) to the first non-blank character of the line
d0 # delete (cut) to the begining of the line
x # delete (cut) character

Search and Replace

/pattern       # search for pattern
?pattern # search backward for pattern
\vpattern # 'very magic' pattern: non-alphanumeric characters are interpreted as special regex symbols (no escaping needed)
n # repeat search in same direction
N # repeat search in opposite direction
:%s/old/new/g # replace all old with new throughout file
:%s/old/new/gc # replace all old with new throughout file with confirmations
:noh # remove highlighting of search matches

Search in multiple files

 :vimgrep /pattern/ {file} # search for pattern in multiple files
:cn # jump to the next match
:cp # jump to the previous match
:copen # open a window containing the list of matches

Exiting

 :w              # write (save) the file, but don't exit
:w !sudo tee % # write out the current file using sudo
:wq or : x or ZZ # write (save) and quit
:q # quit (fails if there are unsaved changes)
:q! or ZQ # quit and throw away unsaved changes

Working with multiple Files

 :ls           # list all open buffers
:sp file # open a file in a new buffer and split window
:vsp file # open a file in a new buffer and vertically split window
Ctrl + ws # split window
Ctrl + ww # switch windows
Ctrl + wq # quit a window
Ctrl + wv # split window vertically
Ctrl + wh # move cursor to the left window (vertical split)
Ctrl + wl # move cursor to the right window (vertical split)
Ctrl + wj # move cursor to the window below (horizontal split)
Ctrl + wk # move cursor to the window above (horizontal split)s)

Tabs

:tabnew or :tabnew file # open a file in a new tab
Ctrl + wT # move the current split window into its own tab
gt or :tabnext or :tabn # move to the next tab
gT or :tabprev or :tabp # move to the previous tab
gt # move to tab
:tabmove
move current tab to the th position (indexed from 0)
:tabclose or :tabc # close the current tab and all its windows
:tabonly or :tabo # close all tabs except for the current one
:tabdo command
run the command on all tabs (e.g. :tabdo q - closes all opened tabs)


Quellen


http://man7.org/linux/man-pages/man1/vi.1p.html
https://ryanstutorials.net/linuxtutorial/cheatsheetvi.php
http://www.lagmonster.org/docs/vi.html
https://vim.rtorr.com/